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热词:  食品 酒业 规范直销 健康315

好吃又有营养的蒲公英

北京大学公共卫生学院营养与食品卫生系教授 马冠生

2018-10-2009:04 来源:中国医药报

蒲公英生长不挑环境,生命力极强,路边杂草中、郊外田野里,到处都可以见到蒲公英的身影。如果遇到旷野中生长的大片蒲公英,孩子们都喜欢摘来一大把,一鼓作气把它们的绒球吹散,充满了童年乐趣。但是,蒲公英真的就是这么简简单单的一种给孩子带来欢乐的植物吗?

问:蒲公英只是普通植物吗?

蒲公英,又名蒲公丁、婆婆丁、黄花地丁等,是菊科多年生草本植物,广泛生长于田间地头。蒲公英是头状花序,种子上有白色冠毛结成的绒球,微风一吹就会四处飘散。在古籍中记载:蒲公英味苦甘寒,无毒,有清热解毒的功效,具有良好的药用价值。

蒲公英富含维生素、氨基酸、矿物质和植物化学物等多种营养元素。研究表明,蒲公英全草具有抗菌、通乳、抗肿瘤、利胆作用等,特别是对于扁桃体炎、胆囊炎、急性黄疸性肝炎等疾病均有良好的临床疗效。世界各国对蒲公英也是偏爱有加。日本人不仅用蒲公英治疗乳腺疾病,而且已经开始研发出了健康的蒲公英食品;德国人则干脆把蒲公英的根须切成碎片,替代咖啡饮用。

问:蒲公英含有哪些维生素?

蒲公英中含有多种维生素。其中维生素C的含量最高,其次是维生素B2含量,最低的是维生素B1含量。各个部位中,维生素C含量顺序是叶子>花>花苞>根,每百克叶子中维生素C的含量高达59.2毫克,是根的5.8倍、花的3倍、花苞的5.8倍。维生素B2的含量顺序是花蕾>花>叶子>根,每百克中的含量分别为1.8毫克、1.3毫克、1.1毫克和0.4毫克。

问:蒲公英所含氨基酸有何作用?

蒲公英中含有17种氨基酸。花苞的含量最高,达到16.2%,其次是叶和花,分别达到15.9%和12.1%,根的含量最低,仅为3.8%。从所含氨基酸的种类来看,蒲公英中必需氨基酸的含量丰富,占氨基酸总量的比例分别为:39.5%(叶子)、37.3%(花)、37.1%(花苞)和37.8%(根)。

可见,在人们不习惯食用的蒲公英花苞和花中氨基酸含量也非常丰富。所含的各种氨基酸中,最值得称道的当属γ-氨基丁酸。研究表明,这是一种神经传导的化学物质,对于人脑中能量代谢发挥着重要作用,而且可以促进乙酰胆碱合成,还有降压、抗惊厥、恢复脑细胞功能等作用。

问:蒲公英中还有什么其他物质?

蒲公英中还含有钾、钙、铁、锌、锰等多种矿物元素。以叶子为例,每百克中含有锌元素7.1毫克,铁元素58.7毫克。值得注意的是,除了根部以外,其他部分所含的“钾/钠”比例高达10倍以上,有助于维持机体的酸碱平衡。

蒲公英全草中还含有各类丰富的植物化学物,如各类植物甾醇,包括:蒲公英醇、蒲公英甾醇、豆甾醇等,对人体均有良好的健康促进作用。

问:蒲公英该怎么吃?

蒲公英可谓浑身是宝,不同的部分吃法也不尽相同:叶子可以生吃,根可以直接烹食,也可处理加工后代替咖啡使用,花可以用来酿酒。

下面介绍几种蒲公英的吃法:

☆生吃:将蒲公英鲜嫩茎叶洗净,沥干蘸酱,虽略有苦味,但味道鲜美、清香且爽口;

☆凉拌:洗净的蒲公英用沸水焯1~2分钟后沥出,用冷水冷却。佐以辣椒油、味精、盐、香油、醋、蒜泥等拌匀即可食用;

☆做馅:洗净的蒲公英嫩茎叶焯水后剁碎,加佐料调成馅包馄饨、饺子或包子。

(责编:聂丛笑、权娟)


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